Books, articles, periodicals, and other material used for reference can be included as footnotes/endnotes or can be listed at the bibliography section at the end of a work.

As the Style Manual follows CMS, if there are ten or less authors in a work, they should all be listed. For 11 or more authors, list the first seven authors’ names then et al. However, if the references are placed in the notes section, only the first author’s name need to be listed, followed by et al. for works authored or edited by four or more persons.

BOOKS
Book references should include the author name/s; title of the book; city, state, country of publication; publisher; and year of publication. Other elements that can be included are the editor/s, compiler/s, and translator/s; edition; volume, series title, and volume number within a series if numbered; page number/s; and URL or DOI, or, if other electronic references are used, the medium consulted (DVD, CD-ROM, etc.).

One-author work:
1. David Colander, The Spread of Economic Ideas (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1989).

Two or more authors/editors/translators:
2. Stephen D. Levitt and Stephen J. Dubner, Freakonomics: A Rogue Economist Explores the Hidden State of Everything (Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 2005).

3. Sue-Ellen Jacobs, Wesley Thomas, and Sabine Lang, eds., Two-Spirit People: Native American Gender Identity, Sexuality, and Spirituality (Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1997).

4. Theodore Silverstein, trans., Sir Gawain and the Green Knight (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1974).

Levitt, Stephen D., and Stephen J. Dubner. Freakonomics: A Rogue Economist Explores the Hidden State of Everything. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 2005.

Jacobs, Sue-Ellen, Wesley Thomas, and Sabine Lang, eds. Two-Spirit People: Native American Gender Identity, Sexuality, and Spirituality. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1997.

Silverstein, Theodore, trans. Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1974.

Editor or translator in addition to author:
5. Yves Bonnefoy, New and Selected Poems, ed. John Naugton and Anthony Rudolf (Chicago, IL: university of Chicago Press, 1995).

6. George Feydeau, Four Farces by Georges Feydeau, trans. Norman R. Shapiro (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1970).

7. Rigoberta Menchú, Crossing Borders, trans. and ed. Ann Wright (New York: Verso, 1999).

Bonnefoy, Yves. New and Selected Poems. Edited by John Naughton and Anthony Rudolf. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1995.

Feydeau, Georges. Four Farces by Georges Feydeau. Translated by Norman R. Shapiro. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1970.

Menchú, Rigoberta. Crossing Borders. Translated and edited by Ann Wright. New York: Verso, 1999.

Chapter in a book:
8. Brendan Phibbs, “Herrlisheim: Diary of a Battle,” in The Other Side of Time: A Combat Surgeon in World War II (Boston, MA: Little, Brown, 1987), 117–63.

9. Anne Carr and Douglas J. Schuurman, “Religion and Feminism: A Reformist Christian Analysis,” in Religion, Feminism, and the Family, ed. Anne Carr and Mary Stewart Van Leeuwen (Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 1996), 14.

Phibbs, Brendan. “Herrlisheim: Diary of a Battle.” In The Other Side of Time: A Combat Surgeon in World War II, 117–63. Boston, MA: Little, Brown, 1987.

Carr, Anne, and Douglas J. Schuurman. “Religion and Feminism: A Reformist Christian Analysis.”In Religion, Feminism, and the Family, edited by Anne Carr and Mary Stewart Van Leeuwen, 14. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 1996.

Editions:
10. William Strunk Jr. and E. B. White, The Elements of Style, 4th ed. (New York: Allyn and Bacon, 2000).

11. Florence Babb, Between Field and Cooking Pot: The Political Economy of Marketwomen in Peru, rev. ed. (Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 1989).

Strunk, William, Jr., and E.B. White. The Elements of Style. 4th ed. New York: Allyn and Bacon, 2000.

Babb, Florence. Between Field and Cooking Pot: The Political Economy of Marketwomen in Peru. Rev. ed. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 1989.

Multivolume works and entries with volume number/s:
12. Aristotle, Complete Works of Aristotle: The Revised Oxford Translation, ed. J. Barnes, 2 vols, Bollingen Series (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1983).

13. Muriel St. Clare Byrne, ed., The Lisle Letters, 6 vols (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1981).

14. Donald Lach, Asia in the Making of Europe, vol. 2 (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1977).

Aristotle. Complete Works of Aristotle: The Revised Oxford Translation. Edited by J. Barnes. 2 vols. Bollingen Series. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1983.

Byrne, Muriel St. Clare, ed. The Lisle Letters. 6 vols. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1981.

Lach, Donald. Asia in the Making of Europe. Vol. 2. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1977.

PERIODICALS
Periodicals include professional journals, newspapers, and magazines. When citing periodicals, the following should be included in the reference entry: author name/s; title and subtitle of the article; title of the periodical; volume/issue number/s, page reference; and date and/or year of publication. References from online periodicals should include the URL or DOI, if available.

Journals:
1. Peter Loften, “Reverberations between Wordplay and Swordplay in Hamlet,”Aeolian Studies 2 (1989): 12–29.

Loften, Peter. “Reverberations between Wordplay and Swordplay in Hamlet,”Aeolian Studies 2 (1989): 12–29.

With issue number:
2. Judith Lewis, “ ‘’Tis a Misfortune to Be a Great Ladie’: Maternal Mortality in the British Aristocracy, 1558–1959,” Journal of British Studies 27, no. 1 (1998): 26–53.

Lewis, Judith. “ ‘’Tis a Misfortune to Be a Great Ladie’: Maternal Mortality in the British Aristocracy, 1558–1959.” Journal of British Studies 27, no. 1 (1998): 26–53.

With DOI number:
3. Jeanette Kennett, “True and Proper Selves: Velleman on Love,” Ethics 118 (January 2008): 215, doi:10.1086/523747.

4. Patrick G. P. Charles et al., “SMART-COP: A Tool for Predicting the Need for Intensive Respiratory or Vasopressor Support in Community-Acquired Pneumonia,” Clinical Infectious Diseases 47 (August 1, 2008): 377, accessed July 17, 2008, doi:10.1086/589754.

Kennett, Jeanette. “True and Proper Selves: Velleman on Love.” Ethics 118 (January 2008): 215. doi:10.1086/523747.

Charles, Patrick G. P., Rory Wolfe, Michael Whitby, Michael J. Fine, Andrew J. Fuller, Robert Stirling, Alistair A. Wright, et al. “SMART-COP: A Tool for Predicting the Need for Intensive Respiratory or Vasopressor Support in Community-Acquired Pneumonia.” Clinical Infectious Diseases 47 (August 1, 2008): 377. Accessed July 17, 2008. doi:10.1086/589754.

With URL:
5. Frank P. Whitney, “The Six-Year High School in Cleveland,” School Review 37, no. 4 (1929): 268, http://www.jstor.org/stable/1078814.

Whitney, Frank P. “The Six-Year High School in Cleveland.” School Review 37, no. 4 (1929): 268. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1078814.

With place where the journal is published:
6. Marvin P. Garrett, “Language and Design in Pippa Passes,” Victorian Poetry(West Virginia University) 13, no. 1 (1975): 47–60.

Garrett, Marvin P. “Language and Design in Pippa Passes.” Victorian Poetry (West Virginia University) 13, no. 1 (1975): 47–60.

Season or month/s in place of volume number:
7. Dean Amadon, “Ecology and the Evolution of Some Hawaiian Birds,” Evolution, March–June 1974, 65–66.

8. Kelvin Saberhagen, “Lake Superior Beluga?” Sturgeon Review, Winter 1928, 21–45.
Amadon, Dean. “Ecology and the Evolution of Some Hawaiian Birds.” Evolution, March–June 1974, 65–66.

Saberhagen, Kelvin. “Lake Superior Beluga?” Sturgeon Review, Winter 1928, 21–45.

Magazines:
9. Beth Saulnier, “From Vine to Wine,” Cornell Alumni Magazine, September/October 2008, 48.

10. Wendy Cole and Janice Castro, “Scientology’s Largesse in Russia,” Time, April 13, 1992, http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,975290,00.html.

Saulnier, Beth. “From Vine to Wine.” Cornell Alumni Magazine, September/October 2008, 48.

Cole, Wendy, and Janice Castro. “Scientology’s Largesse in Russia.” Time, April 13, 1992. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,975290,00.html.

Newspapers:
11. Mike Royko, “Next Time, Dan, Take Aim at Arnold,” Chicago Tribune, September 23, 1992.

12. Christopher Lehmann-Haupt, “Robert Giroux, Editor, Publisher and Nurturer of Literary Giants, Is Dead at 94,” New York Times, September 6, 2008.

Royko, Mike. “Next Time, Dan, Take Aim at Arnold.” Chicago Tribune, September 23, 1992.

Lehmann-Haupt, Christopher. “Robert Giroux, Editor, Publisher and Nurturer of Literary Giants, Is Dead at 94.” New York Times, September 6, 2008.

Article without author/s:
13. “In Texas, Ad Heats Up Race for Governor.” New York Times, July 30, 2002.
New York Times. “In Texas, Ad Heats Up Race for Governor.” July 30, 2002.

With URL:
14. Julie Bosman, “Jets? Yes! Sharks? ¡Sí! in Bilingual ‘West Side’,” New York Times, July 17, 2008, http://www.nytimes.com/2008/07/17/theater/17bway.html.

Bosman, Julie. “Jets? Yes! Sharks? ¡Sí! in Bilingual ‘West Side’.” New York Times, July 17, 2008. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/07/17/theater/17bway.html.

15. Associated Press, “Afraid of Laundry? You Will Be after Reading This,” USA Today, July 17, 2008, http://www.usatoday.com/news/topstories/2008-07-17-861610133_x.htm.

Associated Press. “Afraid of Laundry? You Will Be after Reading This.” USA Today, July 17, 2008. http://www.usatoday.com/news/topstories/2008-07-17-861610133_x.htm.

Letter to the Editor:
16. Sheridan, Brian. Letter to the editor. Los Angeles Times, September 7, 2008.

News release:
17. National Transportation Safety Board, “NTSB Chairman Commends FAA on Major Advancement in Aviation Safety,” news release, July 16, 2008, http://www.ntsb.gov/Pressrel/2008/080716.html.

National Transportation Safety Board. “NTSB Chairman Commends FAA on Major Advancement in Aviation Safety.” News release, July 16, 2008. http://www.ntsb.gov/Pressrel/2008/080716.html.

Reviews:
Reviews include book reviews or reviews of plays, movies, television programs, concerts, etc. Entries should include the name of the reviewer; title; the phrase review of then the title of the work reviewed and its author or network, organization, label, etc.; location and date (in the case of performances); and where the review appeared.

Book review:
1. Ben Ratliff, review of The Mystery of Samba: Popular Music and National Identity in Brazil, by Hermano Vianna, ed. and trans. John Charles Chasteen,Lingua Franca 9 (April 1999): B13–B14.

2. David Kamp, “Deconstructing Dinner,” review of The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals, by Michael Pollan, New York Times, April 23, 2006, Sunday Book Review, http://www/nytimes.com/2006/04/23/books/review/23kamp.html.

3. Angela Sorby, review of Songs of Ourselves: The Uses of Poetry in America, by Joan Shelley Rubin, American Historical Review 113 (April 2008): 449–451, doi:10.1086/ahr.113.2.449.

Ratliff, Ben. Review of The Mystery of Samba: Popular Music and National Identity in Brazil, by Hermano Vianna. Edited and translated by John Charles Chasteen.Lingua Franca 9 (April 1999): B13–B14.

Kamp, David. “Deconstructing Dinner.” Review of The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals, by Michael Pollan. New York Times, April 23, 2006, Sunday Book Review. http://www/nytimes.com/2006/04/23/books/review/23kamp.html.

Sorby, Angela. Review of Songs of Ourselves: The Uses of Poetry in America, by Joan Shelley Rubin. American Historical Review 113 (April 2008): 449–451. doi:10.1086/ahr.113.2.449.

Reviews of plays, movies, television programs, concerts, etc.:
4. Ben Brantley, review of Our Lady of Sligo, by Sebastian Barry, directed by Max Stafford-Clark, Irish Repertory Theater, New York, New York Times, April 21, 2000, Weekend section.

5. Jon Pareles, review of Men Strike Back (VH1 television), New York Times, April 18, 2000, Living Arts section.

6. David Denby, review of WALL-E, Disney/Pixar, New Yorker, July 21, 2008, http://www.newyorker.com/arts/critics/cinema/2008/07/21/080721crci_cinema_denby.

7. Allan Kozinn, review of concert performance by Timothy Fain (violin) and Steven Beck (piano), 92nd Street Y, New York, New York Times, April 21, 2000, Weekend section.

Brantley, Ben. Review of Our Lady of Sligo, by Sebastian Barry. Directed by Max Stafford-Clark. Irish Repertory Theater, New York. New York Times, April 21, 2000, Weekend section.

Pareles, Jon. Review of Men Strike Back (VH1 television). New York Times, April 18, 2000, Living Arts section.

Denby, David. Review of WALL-E, Disney/Pixar. New Yorker, July 21, 2008. http://www.newyorker.com/arts/critics/cinema/2008/07/21/080721crci_cinema_denby.

Kozinn, Allan. Review of concert performance by Timothy Fain (violin) and Steven Beck (piano). 92nd Street Y, New York. New York Times, April 21, 2000, Weekend section.

INTERVIEWS AND PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS

Unpublished Interviews:
Unpublished interview entries are often cited in the text or notes. When citing unpublished interviews, the following should be included: the names of the interviewer and interviewee; brief identifying information, if appropriate; the place and date of the interview (both, if available); and where a transcript or recording may be found, if available.

1. Andrew Macmillan (principal adviser, Investment Center Division, FAO), in discussion with the author, September 1998.

2. Benjamin Spock, interview by Milton J. E. Senn, November 20, 1974, interview 67A, transcript, Senn Oral History Collection, National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

3. Interview with government employee, August 18, 1969.

Published or Broadcast Interviews

A published or broadcast interview is treated like an article in a periodical a chapter in a book.

4. Raymond Bellour, “Alternation, Segmentation, Hypnosis: Interview with Raymond Bellour,” by Janet Bergstrom, Camera Obscura, nos. 3–4 (Summer 1979): 89–94.

5. Matt Okie, “Mil Máscaras: An Interview with Pulitzer-Winner Junot Díaz (The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao),” Identitytheory.com, September 2, 2008, http://www.identitytheory.com/interviews/okie_diaz.php.

Bellour, Raymond. “Alternation, Segmentation, Hypnosis: Interview with Raymond Bellour,” by Janet Bergstrom. Camera Obscura, nos. 3–4 (Summer 1979): 89–94.

Okie, Matt. “Mil Máscaras: An Interview with Pulitzer-Winner Junot Díaz (The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao).” Identitytheory.com, September 2, 2008. http://www.identitytheory.com/interviews/okie_diaz.php.

Personal Communications:

Conversations (face to face or by telephone), letters, correspondence, emails, or text messages referenced in a work are cited in the text or notes.

6. Dave Estrella, email message to author, October 6, 2011.

7. Aria Padolina, pers. comm.

8. Stephen Villanueva, text message to author, December 25, 2011.

INFORMALLY PUBLISHED MATERIAL

Theses, Dissertations, and Working Papers:
For thesis/dissertation entries, the information should include: author name/s; title of the thesis/dissertation; type of thesis; institution; date; and, if consulted online, the URL and/or DOI.

1. Mihwa Choi, “Contesting Imaginaires in Death Rituals during the Northen Song Dynasty” (PhD dissertation, University of Chicago, 2008).

2. Ilya Vedrashko, “Advertising in Computer Games” (master’s thesis, MIT, 2006), http://cms.mit.edu/research/theses/IlyaVedrashko2006.pdf.

3. Lee Dyer and Jeff Ericksen, “Complexity-Based Agile Enterprises: Putting Self-Organizing Emergence to Work,” (CAHRS Working Paper 08-01, School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Center for Advanced Human Resource Studies, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, 1980), http://digitalcommons.ilr.cornell.edu/cahrswp/473.

4. Deborah D. Lucki and Richard W. Pollay, “Content Analyses of Advertising: A Review of the Literature” (working paper, History of Advertising Archives, Faculty of Commerce, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, 1980).

Choi, Mihwa. “Contesting Imaginaires in Death Rituals during the Northen Song Dynasty.” PhD dissertation, University of Chicago, 2008.

Vedrashko, Ilya. “Advertising in Computer Games.” Master’s thesis, MIT, 2006. http://cms.mit.edu/research/theses/IlyaVedrashko2006.pdf.

Dyer, Lee, and Jeff Ericksen. “Complexity-Based Agile Enterprises: Putting Self-Organizing Emergence to Work.” CAHRS Working Paper 08-01, School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Center for Advanced Human Resource Studies, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, 1980. http://digitalcommons.ilr.cornell.edu/cahrswp/473.

Lucki, Deborah D., and Richard W. Pollay. “Content Analyses of Advertising: A Review of the Literature.” Working paper, History of Advertising Archives, Faculty of Commerce, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, 1980.

Papers Presented at Meetings, Lectures, etc.:

Details to be included for papers presented at meetings and lectures are the author name/s; title; sponsorship; location; and date of the meeting.

5. Stacy D’Erasmo, “The Craft and Career of Writing” (lecture, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, April 26, 2000).

6. Linda A. Teplin, Gary M. McClelland, Karen M. Abram, and Jason J. Washburn, “Early Violent Death in Delinquent Youth: A Prospective Longitudinal Study” (paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Psychology Law Society, La Jolla, CA, March 2005).

D’Erasmo, Stacy. “The Craft and Career of Writing.” Lecture, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, April 26, 2000.

Teplin, Linda A., Gary M. McClelland, Karen M. Abram, and Jason J. Washburn. “Early Violent Death in Delinquent Youth: A Prospective Longitudinal Study.” Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Psychology Law Society, La Jolla, CA, March 2005.

WEBSITES AND BLOGS

Website:
Online sources should include the author/s; title or description of the page, if available; owner/s or sponsor/s of the site; date of publication, revision, and/or modification, if available; accessed date; and URL.

1. “WD2000: Visual Basic Macro to Assign Clipboard Text to a String Variable,” revision 1.3, Microsoft Help and Support, last modified November 23, 2006, http://support.microsoft.com/kb/212730.

2. “Google Privacy Policy,” last modified October 14, 2005, accessed July 19, 2008, http://www.google.com/intl/en/privacypolicy.html.

3. “McDonald’s Happy Meal Toy Safety Facts,” McDonald’s Corporation, accessed July 19, 2008, http://www.mcdonalds.com/corp/about/factsheets.html.

4. Barack Obama’s Facebook page, accessed July 19, 2008, http://www.facebook.com/brackobama.

5. “Style Guide,” Wikipedia, last modified July 18, 2008, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Style_guide.

Microsoft Corporation. “WD2000: Visual Basic Macro to Assign Clipboard Text to a String Variable.” Revision 1.3. Microsoft Help and Support. Last modified November 23, 2006. http://support.microsoft.com/kb/212730.

Google. “Google Privacy Policy.” Last modified October 14, 2005. Accessed July 19, 2008. http://www.google.com/intl/en/privacypolicy.html.

McDonald’s Corporation. “McDonald’s Happy Meal Toy Safety Facts.” Accessed July 19, 2008. http://www.mcdonalds.com/corp/about/factsheets.html.

Facebook. Barack Obama’s Facebook page. Accessed July 19, 2008. http://www.facebook.com/brackobama.

Wikipedia. “Style Guide.” Last modified July 18, 2008. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Style_guide.

Blog:

Materials sourced from blogs should include the author/s; title of the blog entry; title of the blog; and URL.

6. Mike Nizza, “Go Ahead, Annoy Away, an Australian Court Says,” The Lede(blog), New York Times, July 15, 2008, http://thelede.blogs.nytimes.com/2008/07/15/.

7. Matthew Lasar, “FCC Chair Willing to Consecrate XM-Sirius Union,” Ars Technica (blog), June 16, 2008, http://arstechnica.com/news.ars/post/20080616-fcc-chair-willing-to-consecrate-xm-sirius-union.html.

Nizza, Mike. “Go Ahead, Annoy Away, an Australian Court Says.” The Lede (blog).New York Times, July 15, 2008. http://thelede.blogs.nytimes.com/2008/07/15/.

Lasar, Matthew. “FCC Chair Willing to Consecrate XM-Sirius Union.” Ars Technica (blog), June 16, 2008. http://arstechnica.com/news.ars/post/20080616-fcc-chair-willing-to-consecrate-xm-sirius-union.html.

In cases of entries from comment/s in a blog post, the following should be included: commenter; date of the comment (if there is a time stamp); the phrase “comment on,” title of the blog entry; date of the blog entry; and URL.

8. SteveCO, comment on Nizza, “Go ahead, Annoy Away, an Australian Court Says.”

9. AC, July 1, 2008 (10:18 a.m.), comment on Rhian Ellis, “Squatters’ Rights,”Ward Six (blog), June 30, 2008, http://wardsix.blogspot.com/2008/06/squatters-rights.html.

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