Materials that are sourced from another work should always be cited or on a separate bibliography section. References that are placed in the bibliography section should follow the author/s–year format; only the last name of the author/s and the year of publication are included.
Esteban’s (2011) study on the branches of the government states… .
A recent study (Santos 2011) presents that the branches of the government… .
*Page, section, volume, and chapter number/s and additional information regarding a source may also be included in a citation.
Scott’s (2011, 81, 86–89) study on the branches of the government states… .
Boado and Lopez’s (1999, chap. 2) study on the branches of the government states… .
Alcaraz’s (1986, sec. 16) study on the branches of the government states… .
In Parenthetical citation:
A recent study (Santos 2011, 81) presents that the branches of the government… .
A recent study (Perez and Mendoza 1999, chap. 2) presents that the branches of the government…
A recent study (1986, sec. 16) presents that the branches of the government…
Multiple works in a single citation should be arranged alphabetically and are separated by semicolons.
Recent studies (Alcaraz 1986; Perez and Mendoza 1999, chap. 2; Boado 2011) present that the branches of the government… .
If there are two or more works by different authors that have the same last names, the author’s initial/s or first name should be included in the citation for differentiation.
In text citation:
(J. Smith 2005) (P. Smith 2001)
Smith, John. 2005. . . . Smith, Paul. 2001. . . .
For works with three or more authors/editors, only the first author’s last name followed by “et al.” is needed.
(Espinosa et al. 2008) or Espinosa et al.’s (2008) study… .
Espinosa, Luigi A., Alex Santos, Jason Scott, Michael Ridley, Adam Mendoza, and Dan Durden. 2008… .
*In cases where two or more works share the first author’s last name and the year of publication but have different coauthors, include the second (and third and so on) author’s last name plus et al. to distinguish among entries.
(Ramos, Aquino, et al. 2010) (Ramos, Marcos, et al. 2010)
Works by the same author/s published in the same year are assigned a letter after the year of publication for a clear citation of source, which is being referenced.
(Cornell 1995a, 1995b)
(Marx and Lauden 1947a, 1947b)
(Jakubiec et al. 2003a, 2003b)
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